Multimodal Nodes: Multimodal Nodes as a Potential for Multilevel Interconnectivity and Sustainable Development

Sanja Gasparovic, Lea Petrovic Krajnik*, Tamara Hladki
Department of Urban Planning, Spatial Planning and Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ka􀀅i􀀄eva 26, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia

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© Gasparovic et al. ; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Urban Planning, Spatial Planning and Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ka􀀇i􀀆eva 26, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia; Tel: +385 1 46 39 197; E-mail:


The research is based on studying trends that can be read as models of behavior of a contemporary city. The overall area of a city is characterized by a complex dynamics of physical and non-physical space, manifested through networks on different levels. For the purpose of this research, the places of overlapping and/or connecting of two prevailing urban dynamics - dynamics of structurally functional changes (transformation of Brownfield sites) and dynamics of mobility (railway infrastructure), are chosen, which are followed by all other aspects of identified trends (dynamics of space using, dynamics of social interaction, dynamics of environmental networks and flows, dynamics of virtual mobility - information and dynamics of financial investments). The aim of this study is to highlight trends of urban space dynamics and possible benefits of their superposition, as well as to identify possible areas where multiple space benefits can be achieved while summing the effects of specific space dynamics changes. Using comparative analysis, two specific points of convergence – Gare do Oriente and Parque das Nações in Lisbon and a planned Multimodal node Sesvete in Zagreb – are examined in order to determine the possible models of dynamic city development. The results show that, with comprehensive and systematic multi-use planning, such locations can gradually become generators of development of the area in which they are located, and have the potential of generating the development of the surrounding areas while achieving multidimensional interconnectivity of urban space.

Keywords: Brownfields, Dynamics, Lisbon, Multimodal Node, Mobility, Multilevel Interconnectivity, Zagreb - Sesvete, Transformation.